Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. A Nature Research Journal. Social factors play a critical role in a panoply of health processes, including, as recently demonstrated, olfaction. Social life was measured by the number of friends and close relatives as well as frequency of socializing. We here confirm the association between social lives and olfactory function and extend the notion by showing specifically that olfactory identification ability is modulated by sex in older adults. The connection between olfactory performance and social lives could reflect social modulation of aging as has been reported for health in general.

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Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations. The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles.

The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January , sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article

This fact sheet provides general information about the nature of asthma when it appears in Individuals who had asthma as a child may see asthma recur later in life. “rescue” medications or prescriptions up-to-date and handy in case you need them. perform a physical exam, and conduct lung function (breathing) tests.

Late adolescence ie, years of age is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories.

We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems.

In the United States, alcohol involvement sometimes starts but more often escalates between 16 and 20 years of age, when youths are also experiencing dramatic physical, emotional, and social changes. Specifically, a variety of forms of hazardous drinking emerge during middle to late adolescence and, for many youths, these problematic patterns of drinking continue to escalate through 18 to 20 years of age, the period of greatest risk for the onset of an alcohol use disorder AUD.

In particular, the timing, sequence, and synchrony of developmentally specific transitions can affect how well youths master new roles, as well as continuities and discontinuities in their behavior. Therefore, developmental models representing a range of theoretical orientations, including systems theory, behavioral genetics, and developmental psychopathology, hold great promise for advancing our understanding of the processes that underlie adolescent changes, including the emergence of alcohol use and abuse.

The need for developmental approaches is underscored by the existence of a consistent body of research showing that the escalation in drinking and the emergence of AUDs in middle and late adolescence have behavioral, social, and biological roots from earlier developmental stages. Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that alcohol involvement in adolescence has both short- and long-term effects on health and well-being at later developmental stages. Importantly, the consequences of adolescent drinking seem to differ from those associated with adult drinking, because there is increasing evidence that adolescents are especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy alcohol use on both biological and social functioning.

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Plato was a philosopher during the 5th century BCE. He was a student of Socrates and later taught Aristotle. He founded the Academy , an academic program which many consider to be the first Western university. Plato wrote many philosophical texts—at least He dedicated his life to learning and teaching and is hailed as one of the founders of Western philosophy.

Dating is a stage of romantic relationships in humans whereby two people meet socially with Another meaning of the term dating is to describe a stage in a person’s life when he or she is actively pursuing family on behalf of the boy’s family; (2) courtship or dating after a friendly meeting between boy and girl such as at a.

Although many people first develop asthma during childhood, asthma symptoms can occur at any time in life. This fact sheet provides general information about the nature of asthma when it appears in adults for the first time. We hope that the material helps you better understand what adult onset asthma is and how you can best manage it.

Please keep in mind that this information is not meant to take the place of medical advice from your own physician. When year-old Dorothy had the flu, it took her weeks to get over it. Afterwards, she still felt winded just doing her everyday routine. Sometimes she had tightness in her chest that made her wonder if she was starting to have heart problems.

At night, she noticed it was easier to breathe propped up a little bit.

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A patient in South Africa battles a strain of tuberculosis that is resistant to multiple antibiotics. Drug resistance is a growing problem with many diseases. As the COVID pandemic caught hold early this year, a small drug company outside Philadelphia was struggling to market a compound that could help patients battling for their lives. Paratek Pharmaceuticals had spent more than 20 years developing and testing an antibiotic named omadacycline Nuzyra , which went on sale in the United States in for use against bacterial infections.

Before COVID, antibiotic resistance was estimated to kill at least , people each year worldwide. That number could now climb as more people with the viral disease receive antibiotics to treat secondary infections, or to prevent infections that come from being on a ventilator.

Globally, the Late Pleistocene witnessed 15 species of mammal To date there have been few global extinctions of marine megafauna, with the to the nature of life on Earth and the functioning of the biosphere may have.

Nature is declining globally at rates unprecedented in human history — and the rate of species extinctions is accelerating, with grave impacts on people around the world now likely, warns a landmark new report from the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services IPBES , the summary of which was approved at the 7th session of the IPBES Plenary, meeting last week 29 April — 4 May in Paris.

We are eroding the very foundations of our economies, livelihoods, food security, health and quality of life worldwide. By transformative change, we mean a fundamental, system-wide reorganization across technological, economic and social factors, including paradigms, goals and values. It is the first intergovernmental Report of its kind and builds on the landmark Millennium Ecosystem Assessment of , introducing innovative ways of evaluating evidence.

Compiled by expert authors from 50 countries over the past three years, with inputs from another contributing authors, the Report assesses changes over the past five decades, providing a comprehensive picture of the relationship between economic development pathways and their impacts on nature. It also offers a range of possible scenarios for the coming decades.

Based on the systematic review of about 15, scientific and government sources, the Report also draws for the first time ever at this scale on indigenous and local knowledge, particularly addressing issues relevant to Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities. Josef Settele Germany and Prof.

Olfactory function and the social lives of older adults: a matter of sex

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The disorder typically becomes apparent during middle age or later life and is of plaques or patches within the brain and the loss of cholinergic neurotransmitter function. Nature. ; Otto M, et al. Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-​Jakob Entry number , last edit date 6/4/99; Entry number , last edit.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. A Nature Research Journal. Previous studies of the association between parity and long-term cognitive changes have primarily focused on women and have shown conflicting results.

We investigated this association by analyzing data collected on , subjects from the UK Biobank. We found that in both females and males, having offspring was associated with a faster response time and fewer mistakes made in the visual memory task. Subjects with two or three children had the largest differences relative to those who were childless, with greater effects observed in men.

Frontoparietal structural properties mediate adult life span differences in executive function

For one year, nine healthy volunteers took a cocktail of three common drugs — growth hormone and two diabetes medications — and on average shed 2. The results were a surprise even to the trial organizers — but researchers caution that the findings are preliminary because the trial was small and did not include a control arm. Scientists construct epigenetic clocks by selecting sets of DNA-methylation sites across the genome.

In the past few years, Horvath — a pioneer in epigenetic-clock research — has developed some of the most accurate ones. The latest trial was designed mainly to test whether growth hormone could be used safely in humans to restore tissue in the thymus gland. The gland, which is in the chest between the lungs and the breastbone, is crucial for efficient immune function.

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This page requires that javascript be enabled for some elements to function correctly. Since respirators are not as consistently reliable as engineering and work practice controls, and may create additional problems, they are not the preferred method of reducing exposures below the occupational exposure levels. Accordingly, their use as a primary control is restricted to certain circumstances.

In those circumstances where engineering and work practice controls cannot be used to reduce airborne contaminants below their occupational exposure levels e. In other cases, where work practices and engineering controls alone cannot reduce exposure levels to below the occupational exposure level, the use of respirators would be essential for supplemental protection.

There are many variables that affect the degree of protection afforded by respiratory protective devices, and the misuse of respirators can be hazardous to employee safety and health. Selection of the wrong equipment, one of the most frequent errors made in respiratory protection, can result in the employee being exposed to increased concentrations of the harmful contaminant.

This error may result in a broad range of health effects caused by the harmful contaminants, including silicosis, asbestosis, permanent lung damage, and cancer. Respirators that are not maintained and inspected can be less effective at reducing exposure to the harmful contaminants, and can place a greater burden on the respiratory system.

Respirators that are not clean can cause dermatitis or skin irritation. Because respirator use may give the employee a false sense of security and presumed protection, an improper respirator program can actually present a high degree of hazard for the employee. Respirators can only provide adequate protection if they are properly selected for the task; are fitted to the wearer and are consistently donned and worn properly; and are properly maintained so that they continue to provide the protection required for the work situation.

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